English Grammar Tenses!
Present Tense (Simple)
The first form of the verb is used as present tenses(simple) in fact this tense does not describe the action that is taking place now/at present. This tense is used to describe habitual or usual acts or general and permanent statements.
In this tense, third-person singular ends in “s” or “es”.
- Mother works in the kitchen in the morning.
- He goes to school daily.
- The earth revolves around the sun.
All these examples describe habitual or usual actions and general truths.
Present Tense (continuous)
This tense describes the action that is taking place Now/ At present.
It is made from the present of “to be” with the “ing” form of the verb.
- I am walking to the door.
- The doctor is examining a patient.
- The teacher is delivering a lecture.
Most verbs of sense feeling or perception are generally not used in the continuous form, useless, of course, they are used in some special sense. These verbs describe actions that happen automatically or state beyond human control.
- I see a man loitering in the street.
- I hear children making a noise in the garden.
A list of some of these verbs is given below:
See, hear, smell, taste, feel, notice; know, understand, remember, recollect, forget; love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish, desire; Suppose, mean, recognize, belief, think, refuse, seem;
This list does not claim to be exhaustive.
Present continuous tense is also used for future tense.
- Tomorrow I am leaving for Dubai.
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Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect English tense tells us about an act that is co. Pelted by now. It does not tell us when this completed act happened. It is only concerned with its present completed state and its relation with now.
The present perfect tense is made by prefixing has or have to the third form of the verb.
Apart from the two adverbs “already “and “not yet” which are normally used with the present perfect tense, the word “since” and “for “are also generally used with this tense. “For” is used for “a given length of time tills now”.
English Grammar Tense Example:
- I have already completed two chapters of the book.
- I have not yet taken my lunch.
Present Perfect tense (continue)
When we wish to describe an action that is not completed by the present moment but is still going on, we use the present perfect (continuous) tense i.e. we add the idea of the present continuous to the idea of the present perfect.
Present perfect continuous is made by the use of has or have as in the case of present perfect (simple), followed by “been” and “ing” form of the main verb.
- I have been standing in the rain waiting for the bus for two hours.
- She has been working in the kitchen all morning.
- He has been sleeping soundly for the last three hours.
Past Tense ( simple)
We use the past tense when we want to talk about some past that has been completed. we also put our verbs past act that has been completed. we also put our verbs into the past simple tense if we want to describe actions happening one after the other, as in a story.
Past tense is made by using the second form of the verb. The word “ago’ is associated with this tense in the same way that “since” and “for” are with the present perfect. The word “ago’ points to the date or period of time measured back from the present.
- My father died five years ago.
- The servant swept the room only a few minutes ago.
- He works me up at seven.
Past Tense (continues)
We use the past tenses Continuous for a past action that has not finished. if we want to talk about some past act that is completed while another is still going on, we use the past continuous for the longer unfinished action and the past simple for the shorter completed action.
Certain verbs are not used in the past continuous form. They are the same verbs that have been discussed in the case of present continues to form some verbs of sense, feeling, and perception.
- He was singing a song.
- He was doing useful work.
- She fell down when she was running.
Past Perfect English Tense
Past perfect tense describes an action completed before the last moment we are talking about. This tense bears the same relation to the past time as the present perfect tense does to now.
This tense is often associated with time clauses and is commonly used in the Reported speech. The past perfect tense is made by prefixing “had” to the third form of the verb.
- we had taken our seats before the show began.
- He said that he had seen him at the railway station on Tuesday last.
Past perfect (continuous)
Past perfect continuous tense is used when we wish to describe an action that was not completed by a certain date or time in the past.
This tense is made by the use of had as in the past perfect simple followed by “been” and “ing” form of the main verb.
- He had been living in Lahore since 1947.
- I had been attending the office for two days.
Future Tense (simple)
The future tense is used to describe an act that is going to happen in the future.
There are a number of ways to make the future tense.
- Use of shall will with the first form of the verb.
Shall is used with first-person singular and plural and will with second and third person. It is used vice versa if the act has to be emphasized.
- Use of going to with the first form of the verb.
- Use of present continuous tense.
Generally, the use of shall, will, or going to does not make any difference in the meaning of a sentence. Sometimes. However, it does. Going to is normally used when the speaker intends the action or feels that the action is certain to happen.
- I shall not believe you.
- She will know the answer tomorrow.
- Aric is going to study French.
Present continuous tense is used to announce a future event which is already fixed or arranged. It is especially common with the verbs of movement.
- she is leaving for pairs tomorrow.
- Siddiqui’s are coming to dinner on Friday next.
Future tense (continuous)
This tense is used to describe an action in progress at some future moment.
This tense is made by using “shall be” “will be” followed by the “ing” form of the verb.
- They will be taking a rest at 3 o’clock.
- I shall be writing a letter to Rashid in a week’s time.
Future Perfect tense tells us about an activity that will be completed by a certain future date.
It is made by using “shall have” “will have” followed by the third form of the verb.
- I shall have taken my dinner by 10 o’clock
- She will have left the country by tomorrow.
Note: Future perfect tense is not used with time communication. The present perfect tense is used instead.
- I shall wait here until you have finished your work
There is also a Future perfect continuous Tense but it is not often used.
By next year he will have been working in this factory for five years.
Related: Direct Indirect Tenses
English Grammar Tenses (Infographics)