The English language is rich and diverse, offering various tenses to convey different meanings and time frames. One of the essential tenses in English grammar is the Present Perfect tense. Understanding and using the Present Perfect tense correctly is crucial for effective communication in both spoken and written English. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the rules and examples of the Present Perfect tense to help you master this important aspect of English grammar.
Structure of Present Perfect Tense
To form the Present Perfect tense, you need two components: the auxiliary verb “have” (have/has) and the past participle of the main verb. Here’s the basic structure:
- Subject + have/has + past participle of the main verb
- Subject + have/has + not + past participle of the main verb
- Have/Has + subject + past participle of the main verb + ?
Now, let’s delve into the specific rules and examples for each form.
Present Perfect Affirmative
- Immediately following the subject. According to the subject, use the helping verbs has and have.
- Then secondly, use the third form of verb.
- With he, she, it, or singular noun use ‘has’ and with I, we, they, you use the helping verb ‘have’.
|Subject +||Helping verb +||form of verb3 +||Object +|
Present perfect affirmative sentences
- He has done his homework.
- She has washed the clothes.
- The rain has stopped.
- You have helped us.
- We have reached home.
- He has completed my work.
- The boys have completed their work.
- He has escaped from jail.
- We have invited them.
- He has threatened them.
- They have not defeated India.
Present Perfect Negative Tense
- In negative sentences of this tense, put ‘not’ after the suitable helping verb and then 3rd form of the verb.
|Subject +||Helping verb + not +||form of verb3 +||Object|
Present perfect -ve sentences
- He has not taken breakfast.
- She has not combed her hair.
- You have not taken breakfast.
- They have not taken breakfast.
- The carpenter has not made a chair.
- He has not told a lie.
- Artist has not painted the picture.
- The girl have not made up.
- Asfa has not completed her work.
- They have not attended his marriage.
- He has not abducted the children.
- They have not operated on the patient.
Present Perfect Interrogative
- In these sentences, put the helping verb has, have at the start of the sentence before the subject.
- Then 3rd form of verb is used, put interrogative mark (?) at the end of the sentence.
|Helping verb +||Subject +||form of verb3 +||Object|
Present perfect interrogative sentences
- Has he won the match?
- Has he washed the clothes?
- Have they read the story?
- Have they changed the clothes?
- When have we sent the letter?
- Why has he gone to Lahore?
- How have they crossed the river?
- Where have you lost the ring?
- Have we bought the book
- Has he read the newspaper?
- Has he insulted his brothers?
- Have they built the palace?
- Has Ali wrung the clothes?
- Has Ali occupied on the property?
Must Try: Present Perfect Continuous Rules