Direct and Indirect speech

Direct and Indirect speech!

Reporting and Reported Speech

When a person reports a speech, a statement, an order, etc. of another person, the words uttered by the first person are called the reporting speech, and the speech, the statement, or the order of the other person is called the reported speech.

Example:

Reporting speech———————————Jokey said,                                                          

Reported speech———————————-“I do not eat mangoes”

Jokey said, “I do not eat mangoes”

 

There are two ways to report a speech:

  1. Reproduce the words actually used by the speaker in inverted commas. (Direct Narration)

OR

  1. Give a substance of the speech in the words of the reporter. (Indirect Narration)

 

Examples:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

NOTE: In the first sentence, the reporter conveys the message of the girl using her actual words (e.g., “I am a little bit nervous.”) In the second sentence, the reporter conveys her message but in his own words without any change in the meaning. So in both the ways we have discussed (about reporting a speech) both are conveying someone’s message.


Rules for Changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech

Rule 1:

When the reporting verb is in the present, present perfect, or future tense, the verb of the reported speech remains unchanged. We do sometimes change the personal pronouns and add the conjunction ‘that’.

Examples:

Direct: She says, “This is not correct”.

Indirect: She says that this is not correct.

 

Rule 2:

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, the present or future tense in the reported speech changes into a past tense, and present perfect or past tense into past perfect tense. Pronouns change according to the sense of the report.

Example:

Direct: He said, “she has finished her work.”

Indirect: He said that she had finished her work.

Direct: She said, “I met him last year.”

Indirect: she said that she had met him the previous year.

 

Note: When, however, the reporting speech states a universal truth, the present tense in the reported speech remains unchanged in the indirect form of narration.

 

Rule 3:

when the reported speech is an interrogative sentence starting with question words, the reporting verb changes into enquiring, ask, wonder, or some other appropriate verb. The question word remains unchanged in the reported speech. Tense changes in the reported speech are the same as for statements when the reporting verb is in the past tense.

Examples:

Direct: The teacher said, “why are you so late”

Indirect: The teacher asked why he was so late.

Direct: He said, “when are you so exciting your second child.”

Indirect: He inquired when she was so excepting her second child.

 

Rule 4:

when the reported speech is an interrogative sentence made by putting the helping verb before the subject, we use “weather” or “if” to join it to the appropriate reporting verb. Usual tense changes take place in the reporting verb. Is in the past tense.

Examples:

Direct: He said to her, “Are you leaving today?”

Indirect: He enquired of her whether she was leaving that day.

Direct: She said, “Did you take part in the competition.

Indirect: she asked her whether she had taken part in the competition.

 

Rule 5:

Imperative become an infinitive in the reported speech and the reporting verb changes to tell, ask, order, etc.

Examples

Direct:  He said to his servant, “leave the room at once”

Indirect:  He ordered his servant to leave the room at once.

 

Rule 6:

When let occurs in the direct speech, it is changed into the indirect form according to the sense it conveys.

Example:

Direct: Arshad said, “Let him go.”

Indirect: Arshad said that he might be allowed to go.

 

Rule 7:

Must is used:

(1) sometimes as true present tense.

(2) sometimes as future tense.

(3) sometimes as a rule or a regulation.

  • As true present tense, ‘must’ changes into past tense in the indirect form of narration:

Direct: He said, “I must do it now.”

Indirect: He said that he must do it at once.

  • As future tense, ‘must’ changes into past perfect tense in the indirect form of narration:

Direct: He said, “I must go again next week.”

Indirect: He said that he would have to go again next week.

  • As a rule, or regulation, ‘must’ behaves like a universal truth and is treated like that in the indirect form of narration:

Direct: He said, “You must take your shoes off before entering a mosque.”

Indirect: He said that he must take his shoes off before entering a mosque.

 

Rule 8:

If a wish or a prayer is expressed in the reported speech, the reporting verb is changed into a wish or pray or some other appropriate verb.

Direct: He said to me, “May you live long!”

        Indirect: He wished that I might live long!

 

Rule no 9:

An adjective or adverb denoting nearness, in the direct speech, is changed into one denoting distance, in the indirect form of narration. (The reader must have noted it in the examples and exercises already done).

Examples:

Now into then. Today into that day.
This into that. Tomorrow into next day.
Hither into thither. Yesterday into the previous day.
Here into there. Last night into the previous night.
Hence into thence. Ago into before.
Come into go. Now into then.

 

Speech Table

Direct and Indirect speech

words will change into Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Good Morning, Good evening, Good Day Greeted He said, “ Good morning, sir!” He greeted me respectfully.
Tomorrow Next-day/Following day She said, “ I will not go to school tomorrow.” She said that she will not go to school the next day.
Today That day She said to me, “Tell me the truth today.” She advised me to tell her the truth that day.
Sir Respectfully Tom said, “Sir, is Jerry at home?’ Tom said respectfully if Jerry was at home.
Madam Respectfully Tom said, “Madam, is Jerry at home?’ Tom said, “Sir, is Jerry at home?’
This That He said to her, “ I live in this building.” He told her that he lived in that building.
These Those He says, “ He wants to buy these Computers.” He said that he wants to buy those computers.
Now Then I said to my servant. “Post this letter now,” I ordered my servant to post that letter then.
Yesterday The previous day She said, “ I did not go to school yesterday” She said that she had not gone to school the previous day.
Tonight That night She said, “I am going to see him tonight.” She said that she was going to see him that night.
an hour before an hour ago He said, “ I have completed my drawing half an hour ago.” He said that he had completed his drawing half an hour before.
Here There She said, “Everybody was here.” She said that everybody was there.
Last Night Previous night He said, “ She sang a beautiful song at the concert last night” He said that she sang a beautiful song at the concert the previous night.

 

Direct and Indirect speech Table:

direct and indirect speech table
direct and indirect speech

 

Direct and Indirect Speech Examples

Direct  They said, “we have done our duty.”
Indirect  They said that they had done their duty.
Direct  The teacher said to us, “you have not completed your drawing.”
Indirect  The teacher told us that we had not completed our drawing.
Direct  She said, “They have not eaten their meals.”
Indirect  She said that they had not eaten their meals.
Direct  The teacher said, “I have often told you not to play with fire.”
Indirect  The teacher said that he had often told me not to play with fire.
Direct  The brother said to me, “you have missed the point completely.”
Indirect  The brother told me that I had missed the point completely.
Direct  He said,  “I complete my drawing half an hour ago.”
Indirect  He said that he had completed his drawing half an hour before.
Direct  She said, “I did not go to school yesterday.”
Indirect  She said that she had not gone to school the previous day.
Direct  He said, “she sang a beautiful ‘song’ at the concert last night.”
Indirect  He said that she had sung a beautiful ‘song’ at the concert the previous night.
Direct  She said, “he rang me up at twelve midnight.”
Indirect  She said that he had rung her up at twelve midnight.
Direct  He said, “the boy did not put up a good show last night.”
Indirect  He said that the boys had not put up a good show the previous night.

 

List 2
Direct  She said, “I shall never do such a thing.”
Indirect  She said that she would never do such a thing.
Direct  Ali said, “they will wait for us for an hour only.”
Indirect  Ali said that they would wait for them for an hour only.
Direct  They said, “We shall never make a promise we cannot fulfill.”
Indirect  They said that they would never make a promise they could not fulfill.
Direct  He said, “I shall explain this to you only if you listen to me with patience.”
Indirect  He said that he would explain that to me only if I listened to him with patience.
Direct  He said, “I hope you will not repeat this mistake.”
Indirect  He said that he hoped I would not repeat that mistake.
Direct  He said, “will you listen to me?”
Indirect  He asked whether I would listen to him.
Direct  She said, “Are you going to Lahore today?”
Indirect  She asked whether I was going to Lahore that day.
Direct  He said, “Do you agree with me?”
Indirect  He asked whether I agreed with him.
Direct  He said to me, “what are you looking for?”
Indirect  He asked me what I was looking for.
Direct  She said,  “where do you live?”

 

List 3
Indirect  She asked where I lived.
Direct  He said, “how many chapters have you already done?”
Indirect  He asked how many chapters I had already done.
Direct  She said, “is this your book?”
Indirect  She asked if that was my book.
Direct  He said, “Do you have any share in this firm?”
Indirect  He asked if I had any share in that firm.
Direct  They said, “have you ever visited the Murree Hills?”
Indirect  They asked if I had ever visited the Murree Hills.
Direct  He said, “Aren’t you ashamed of yourself?”
Indirect  He asked if I was not ashamed of myself.
Direct  The teacher said, “Did you do your home task yesterday?”
Indirect  The teacher asked if I had done my home task the previous day.
Direct  The mother said, “Didn’t I ask you not to go there?”
Indirect  The mother asked if she had not asked me not to go there.
Direct  Riana said,  “will you stop interfering in my work?”
Indirect  Riana asked me if I would stop interfering in her work.
Direct  The mother said, “shall we invite the Qureshi’s also?”
Indirect  The mother asked if they would invite the Qureshi’s also.

 

List 4
Direct  Ali said, “Had you left Hawaii before writing this letter?”
Indirect  Ali asked if I had left Hawaii before writing that letter.
Direct  The judge said, “have anything more to say?”
Indirect  The judge asked if I had anything more to say.
Direct  He said, “what do you want me to do?”
Indirect  He asked what I wanted h to do.
Direct  The mother said, “how did you fail in your examination?”
Indirect  The mother asked how I had failed in my explanation.
Direct  Raza said, “where are you going?”
Indirect  Raza asked where I was going.
Direct  The teacher said, “whose book is this?”
Indirect  The teacher asked whose book that was.
Direct  The teacher said, “who is the author of this book?”
Indirect  The teacher asked who the author of that book was.
Direct  The stranger said, “which is the way to the Gardens?”
Indirect  The stranger asked which way to the gardens was.
Direct  The manager said, “how do you propose to solve this problem”?
Indirect  The manager asked how I proposed to solve that problem.
Direct  The boy said, “what do you want me to do?”
Indirect  The boy asked what I wanted him to do.

 

List 5
Direct  The pupil said, “where have I eased?”
Indirect  The pupil asked where he had eased.
Direct  The teacher said, “who is the next on the list?”
Indirect  The teacher asked who the next on the list was.
Direct  The referee said, “Quiet, please.”
Indirect  The referee requested the spectators to be quiet.
Direct  The teacher said, “Do not make a noise.”
Indirect  The teacher asked the student not to make a noise.
Direct  She said to me, “tell the truth.”
Indirect  She advised me to tell the truth.
Direct  She said to me, “please lend me your camera for a day.”
Indirect  She requested me to lend her my camera for a day.
Direct  Ali said, “let us finish our work first.”
Indirect  Ali proposed that they should finish their work first.
Direct  He said to his sister, “please say something”.
Indirect  He requested his sister to say something.
Direct  She said to her friends, “please have dinner with me tomorrow at eight.”
Indirect  She requested her friend to have dinner with her the next day at eight.
Direct  The judge said, “call the next witness.”
Indirect  The judge ordered the peon to call the next witness.

 

List 6
Direct  Ali said to his uncle, “please help me in getting some job.”
Indirect  Ali requested his uncle to help him in getting some job.
Direct  The doctor said the patient, “take complete rest and follow my direction.”
Indirect  The doctor advised the patient to take complete rest and follow his direction.
Direct  The teacher said to the pupil, “read the paragraph and explain it in simple English.”
Indirect  The teacher asked the pupil to read the paragraph and explain that in simple English.
Direct  The mother said to the daughter, “please tidy up your room.”
Indirect  The mother advised her daughter to tidy up her room.
Direct  She said to me, “Do not waste your time in idle talk.”
Indirect  She advised me not to waste my time in idle talk.
Direct  The father said to his son, “get up early in the morning and go for a walk.”
Indirect  The father advised his son to get up early in the morning and go for a walk.
Direct  Ali said, “let us go for a picnic on Friday.”
Indirect  Ali suggested that they should go for a picnic on Friday.
Direct  He said to his friend, “please lend me your bike for a day.”
Indirect  He requested his friend to lend him his bike for a day.
Direct  He said to her, “please fetch me a glass of water.”
Indirect  He requested her to fetch him a glass of water.
Direct  The master said to the servant, “Go and fetch me a glass of milk.”
Indirect  The master ordered the servant to go and fetch him a glass of milk.

 

List 7
Direct  The father said to his son, “Do not leave this room without my permission.”
Indirect  The father asked his son not to leave that room without his permission.
Direct  She said to them, “let us not deceive ourselves.”
Indirect  She suggested that they should not deceive themselves.
Direct  He said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”
Indirect  He exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.
Direct  He said, “Alas! I am ruined.”
Indirect  He exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.
Direct  He said, “may Allah help me do my duty!”
Indirect  He prayed that Allah might help him do his duty.
Direct  She said to her father, “may you live long!”
Indirect  She prayed for her father that he might live long.
Direct  She said, “May you prosper!”
Indirect  She prayed that I might prosper.
Direct  The mother said to her daughter, “May Allah bless you with a son!”
Indirect  The mother prayed for her daughter that Allah might bless her with a son.
Direct  She said, “would that my father was alive!”
Indirect  She wished that her father had been alive.
Direct  The mother said to her son, “may you return successfully!”
Indirect  The mother prayed for her son that he might return successfully.

 

List 8
Direct  She said, “what a beautiful piece of art!”
Indirect  She exclaimed with wonder that it was a beautiful piece of art.
Direct  He said, “How well she sings!”
Indirect  He exclaimed with wonder that she sang very well.
Direct  He said, “Alas! We cannot defeat our enemies.”
Indirect  He exclaimed with sorrow that they could not defeat their enemies.
Direct  She said, “what a pity you missed that function!”
Indirect  She exclaimed with sorrow that I had missed that function.
Direct  He said, “Hurrah! I have won the medal.”
Indirect  He exclaimed with joy that he had won the medal.
Direct  She says, “I hope I am not late.”
Indirect  She says that she hopes she is not late.
Direct  He says, ‘I want to speak to you.”
Indirect  He says that he wants to speak to me.
Direct  You have said, “They are waiting outside.”
Indirect  You have said that they are waiting outside.
Direct  You will say, “she is cranky.”
Indirect  You will say that she is cranky.
Direct  They say, “we have done our duty.”
Indirect  They say that they have done their duty.

 

List 9
Direct  She says, “we have shifted to another house.”
Indirect  She says that they have shifted to another house.
Direct  The teacher will say, “you have done your work very well.”
Indirect  The teacher will say that I have done my work very well.
Direct  He says, “she has written me a very encouraging letter.”
Indirect  She says that she has written him a very encouraging letter.
Direct  She says, “We love and respect our neighbors very much.”
Indirect  She says that they love and respect their neighbors very much.
Direct  She has said, “she is ready to accompany us to Karachi.”
Indirect  She has said that she is ready to accompany them to Karachi.
Direct  He says, “I have not heard the latest news about her.”
Indirect  He says that he has not heard the latest news about her.
Direct  The doctor says, “the patient is still in a state of coma.”
Indirect  The doctor says that the patient is still in a state of coma.
Direct  The teacher says, “she has always been a good student.”
Indirect  The teacher says that she has always been a good student.
Direct  She will say, “he did not come up to my expectations.”
Indirect  She will say that he did not come up to her expectations.
Direct  He said to me, “He does his duty.”
Indirect  He told me that he did his duty.

 

List 10
Direct  He says, “I am going to college.”
Indirect  He says that he is going to college.
Direct  He said to me, “you are not a man of your word.”
Indirect  He told me that I was not a man of my word.
Direct  Ali said, “He will come and meet you.”
Indirect  Ali said that he would come and meet me.
Direct  He said to me, “ I shall visit you soon.”
Indirect  He told me that he would visit me soon.
Direct  He said, “it was raining.”
Indirect  He said that it had been raining.
Direct  He said, ‘My friend left for Lahore.”
Indirect  He said that his friend had left for Lahore.
Direct  He says, “my father is an engineer.”
Indirect  He says that his father is an engineer.
Direct  She says, “I am working hard.”
Indirect  She says that she is working hard.
Direct  He says, “I go to school regularly.”
Indirect  He says that he goes to school regularly.
Direct  she said, “I am doing my home task now.”
Indirect  she said that she was doing her home task then.

 

List 11
Direct  He said, “I am not a thief.”
Indirect  He said he was not a thief.
Direct  she said, “I am working hard.”
Indirect  she said that she was working hard.
Direct  He said, “I have returned the book.”
Indirect  He said that he had returned the book
Direct  she said, “The patient died in the hospital.”
Indirect  she said that the patient had died in the hospital.
Direct  He said, “she will go there.”
Indirect  He said that she would go there.
Direct  she said, “I do not agree with you.”
Indirect  she said that she did not agree with me.
Direct  He said to the stranger, “I do not recognize you”
Indirect  He told the stranger that he did not recognize him.
Direct  The teacher said to Romeo, “I have taught you and your sister.”
Indirect  The teacher told Romeo that he had taught him and his sister.
Direct  She said to me, “you are a lazy boy.”
Indirect she told me that I was a lazy boy.

 

Infographics

Direct and indirect speech
direct and indirect speech
Direct and indirect speech
direct and indirect speech

direct and indirect speech

direct and indirect speech

direct and indirect speech

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